<![CDATA[Antonio JoneS ScraPes - Blog]]>Sun, 27 Dec 2015 14:45:44 -0800Weebly<![CDATA[Radon guided viewing]]>Mon, 14 Dec 2015 01:16:28 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/radon-guided-viewing1: How many deaths are caused by Radon per year?
21,000 deaths/year

2: What is Radon Gas?
-A carcinogous,odorless, tasteless gas

3: Where is Radon found?
Everywhere in the U.S

4: How does Radon get into your home?
Cracks in solid floors, construction joints, cracks in walls, gaps in suspended floors, gaps around service pipes, cavities inside walls, the water supply

5: What level of Radon is considered unsafe? (indoors)
4 pCi/L

6: Is Radon in your home water supply considered to be a problem? Explain.
No, but it poses an inhalation risk and an ingestion risk. Most of the risk from radon in water comes from radon released into the air when water is used for showering and other household purposes. Radon in water is not a problem when the source is surface water, but when the source is groundwater then there is an issue.

7: How can you lower the Radon levels in your home?
Soil suction radon reduction system, contractor, private radon proficiency programs,
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<![CDATA[Toxics in Your neighborhood]]>Sat, 12 Dec 2015 01:19:43 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/toxics-in-your-neighborhood1: Type in your zip code
92111

2: Under the “toxics” category- click on the link, “See how your county stacks up”.
List the 6 categories and relative percentage ranking for San Diego County.
1.Total environmental releases: 70-80%
2.Cancer risk score (air and water releases): 70-80%
3.Noncancer risk score (air and water releases): 60-70%
4.Air releases of recognized carcinogens: 80-90%
5.Air releases of recognized developmental toxicants: 60-70%
6.Air releases of recognized reproductive toxicants: 70-80%

Did the results surprise you at all, why or why not?
No due to the high amount of population.

3: Click on the “other chemical release and waste management attributes” link. List
the categories for which San Diego falls in the Dirtiest/Worst counties in the United
States (80-100%). How do you account for these levels being so high?
  • Water releases
  • Total off-site transfers
  • Total production-related waste
  • Air releases of recognized carcinogens
  • Air releases of suspected carcinogens
  • Air releases of suspected cardiovascular or blood toxicants
  • Water releases of suspected cardiovascular or blood toxicants
  • Air releases of suspected endocrine toxicants
  • Air releases of suspected neurotoxicants

I participate in water release because I wash dishes by hand and take really long showers sometimes.

4: List the categories for which San Diego scores well in terms of environmental
pollutants (less than 20%). Why do you think the levels of these pollutants are so much
better here in San Diego? Explain.

  • Water releases of suspected carcinogens
  • Water releases of suspected developmental toxicants
  • Water releases of suspected gastrointestinal or liver toxicants
  • Air releases of suspected musculoskeletal toxicants
  • Water releases of suspected neurotoxicants
  • Water releases of suspected reproductive toxicants
  • Water releases of suspected skin or sense organ toxicants

I think these are low due to the high water regulation and being by the ocean.

5: Click the back button on your browser to get back to the pollution report card for your
zip code. Click on the link “the top polluters” in your county. List the top 10 polluters
in San Diego County. What do you know about these companies? What do they
manufacture?
1.U.S. MARINE CORPS MCB CAMP PENDLETON -They are part of the military
2.NATIONAL STEEL & SHIPBUILDING CO. (NASSCO) - They make ships and steel
3.WATKINS MFG. -They make portable hot tubs
4.SOUTHWEST MARINE INC. -Repair boat parts
5.SONY ELECTRONICS INC. SONY TECH. CENTER SAN DIE - Makes modern electronics
6.U.S. NAVY NAVAL AIR STATION NORTH ISLAND - Military
7.DUKE ENERGY SOUTH BAY POWER PLANT -They provide power for the city
8.SIGNET ARMORLITE INC. -They make lenses
9.CALDERA SPAS INC. -They sell hot tubs
10.ARCO SAN DIEGO TERMINAL -Airport

6: Go back to the report card page and click on the “top chemicals released” link, and
list the top 5 chemicals released in San Diego.
1. Nitrate Compounds
2. Lead compounds
3. N-Butyl Alcohol
4. 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene
5. Copper

7: Go back to the report card page and locate the air pollution section. Click on the
“How many days a year is your air unhealthy”? link. How many days did San Diego
have good air quality? 44 days
Moderate? 50 days
Unhealthy? 1 day(s)

List the three major pollutants you think are responsible for reduced air quality in San
Diego.
- Fossil fuels
- Nitrogen
- Co2

8: Go back to the report card page and find the water quality section. Click on the “See
how your county’s water quality stacks up” link. What are the two categories and
percentages listed?
  • Percentage of Surface Waters with Impaired or Threatened Uses (state + EPA data): 80-90%
  • Number of Impaired Waterbodies (as reported by the state): 70-80%


9: Scroll down the page and locate the top two pollutants and percentages for (rivers,
lakes and creeks) category, the (lakes, reservoirs, and ponds) category and (estuaries,
bays and coasts) category. List some ideas as to the source of the potential water
pollutants here in San Diego.
  • Dumping of excess waste
  • Dumping of pool water



10: Go to the URL: http://www.sdcounty.ca.gov/deh/. This site is the San Diego County
Office of Environmental Health.
Describe the role of this office:

The role of this office is to protect public health and safe guard environmental quality. They do this by
educating the public of environmental awareness and enforcing local, state, and federal laws.

11: Type or click on the URL: http://www.sdcountry.ca.gov/deh/hazmat/hhw.html. Read
the information on “What is Hazardous Waste?” and list 8 common household items that
are classified as hazardous waste. How many of these do you have in your house?
Indicate which are in your home. (*)
  1. aerosol cans
  2. automotive fluids
  3. batteries
  4. computers
  5. fertilizers
  6. flourescent lights
  7. household cleaners
  8. pesticides

I have just about all of these in my house.

13: Click on the Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities link and list 3 certified
disposal sites in San Diego.
  • San Diego County Water Authority
  • California Center for Sustainable Energy
  • California Integrated Waste Management Board

15: Go to http://www.earth911.org/master.asp. Look around the page and do a little
research on electronics and battery hazardous waste. What are some of the problems
with these types of waste? What are the recycling/disposal options?

The batteries would leak acids. Some recycling options is to buy rechargeable batteries and keep them sustained.


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<![CDATA[Scrapes: Radioactive Smoke]]>Fri, 11 Dec 2015 17:57:14 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/scrapes-radioactive-smokeAuthor: Brianna RegoKeypoints:
  • Nothing is done to take the dangerous isotope from cigarettes
  • Polonium 210 is used in cigarettes
  • Poison builds to 300 chest xrays a year
  • Tobacco industry has known how to take it out of cigarettes for 50 years
  • 2009: obama signs
-Family Smoking Prevention
-and Tobacco Control Act into law
  • Vilma R. Hunt discovered a way to get it polonium out
  • Polonium 210 is a decay product of lead 210
  • Radon 222 decay into lead 210
  • Polonium is the cause of lung and many other cancers
  • Test confirmed 94% of hamsters developed lung cancer
  • Polonium responsible for 2% of smoke cancers
  • One way to fix the problem was to wash the leaves with hydrogen peroxide
  • 20-50% of polonium could easily be removed and washing could remove another 25%
  • World Health organization has made it clear that smoking is the most avoidable cause of death



Summary:
Everyday, people die from smoking tobacco and cigarettes. Many of these deaths are due to the chemical in cigarettes called Polonium 210. If smokers inhale this product daily, it would be equivalent to 300 chest x-ray doses a year. This wouldn't be a problem if cigarette companies were to simply just remove it. The companies have even known how to take it out for over 50 years. Back then, the government was not as strong, but now it is. They should be able to enforce this carcinogenic chemical out of these widely used products but they are not doing their jobs. 2% of the daily smokers wouldn't have to die from cancer if they were to fix this problem now.

My thoughts:
I think that the government is becoming really lazy. It shouldn't be to hard to enforce some regulations on this chemical especially as it is widely spread and used in all of the U.S. If not taking this deadly chemical out, they should at least warn the consumer about it. Its like the tobacco companies want to kill their consumer. 2% of people may not seem much but placed over a huge population such as the U.S, would make it worth something. This should have been banned a long time ago.



So what?Polonium 210 is responsible for 2% of cancers from smoking
Says who?Says Vilma R. Hunt and Brianna Rego



What If?What if polonium 210 was taken out already, how much deadlier would cigarettes be?


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<![CDATA[ScrAPES: Everyday Exposure]]>Fri, 11 Dec 2015 17:55:59 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/scrapes-everyday-exposure
As the result of research that was done over 15 U.S States, it is now official that indoor concentrations of toxins are greater than outdoor concentrations. This is due to the fact that our everyday household items such as shampoo, house cleaners, and lipstick contain chemicals which are also toxic to the human body. Many people do not even recognize or are aware in the products that they buy just like of how unaware the government and law are. Many of the laws that contain regulations about toxins are based on outdoor sources. Though it is important to regulate the air in the natural environment, the government will need to come up ways to regulate the everyday household. Toxins in the home are just as deadly as the toxins outdoor.
These kind of articles really make me think twice about buying stuff at our local stores. Thinking about the kind of stuff that the industries put on our everyday household items and many other things sometimes just doesn't want to spend any money at all. Reading these articles however, have made me learn about these dangers and so I am able to spread it so many other people may learn as well.

I think that we should put more education in this topic more around the U.S. More education would make more people interested which would lead to making the government know about our issues eventually leading further into new regulations for the industries. We need to spread our thinking more than just the obvious as I also didn't know that toxins are more concentrated indoor than outdoor.

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<![CDATA[ScrAPES Article: Tuberculosis]]>Mon, 07 Dec 2015 05:50:09 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/scrapes-article-tuberculosis


Summary

​Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in infectious diseases. Tuberculosis intervention "has saved over 43 million lives since 2000". Even though most cases of TB a be treated, death rates from TB are still high. More funds go into finding cures for AIDS/HIV than TB. The spending on researching TB is only $800,000 while the funding for AIDS/HIV research is about 8 billion dollars, about 10 times more than researching for TB. This difference is because HIV/AIDS mostly affects only poorer countries like Africa , while TB affects places like China and India, where they can fund themselves. The funding for both diseases should be equal, because TB is a curable disease and affects many in the poorer countries, which can "curb global deaths".
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<![CDATA[scrAPES Article: Population, Poverty, and the Local environment​]]>Mon, 07 Dec 2015 05:49:56 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/scrapes-article-population-poverty-and-the-local-environment

  • At a total fertility rate of seven or more, the chance that a woman entering her reproductive years will not live through them is about one in six.
  • Data on the status of women from 79 so-called Third World countries display an unmistakable pattern: high fertility, high rates of illiteracy, low share of paid employment and a high percentage working at home for no pay—they all hang together.
  • Many factors militate against poor households’ taking advantage of subsidized education.
  • The importance of gender inequality to overpopulation in poor nations is fortunately gaining international recognition.
Summary
The Author talks about how people blame population growth as a cause of poverty and environmental degradation. In developing countries, decisions on whether to have a child and on how to share education, food, work, health care and local resources are in large measure made within small entities such as households. The number of live babies a woman could have is she survived her childbearing years is called the total fertility rate, which is between 6 and 8 in Sub-Saharan Africa. When both parents participate in the decision to have a child, there are several pathways through which the choice becomes harmful to the community. Families with greater access to resources are in a position to limit their size and propel themselves into still higher income levels. One motive relates to children as ends in themselves. It ranges from the desire to have children because they are playful and enjoyable, to the desire to obey the dictates of tradition and religion. Rural assets such as village ponds and water holes have been owned communally. If access to shared resources continues, parents produce too many children, leading to crowding and susceptibility to disease and more pressure on the environmental resources. Importance of gender inequality to overpopulation in poor nations is fortunately gaining international recognition. Families with greater access to resources are in a position to limit their size and propel themselves into still higher income levels.
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<![CDATA[ScrAPES: Toxins in your hair.]]>Mon, 07 Dec 2015 05:35:13 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/scrapes-toxins-in-your-hair
A Brazilian blowout is a way of straightening your hair turning curly hair into fizz-free hair. However, this hair-do comes with a price. When attempting this, a chemical called toxic carcinogen formaldehyde is used as reported from the OSHA. A hairstylist from Portland, Oregon has attempted the brazilian blow out and resulted in shortage of breath, eye irritation and nosebleeds. Later effects of this chemical could result in cancer and leukemia. As more people began to report of these symptoms, the company responsible of the Brazilian blowout decided to make a new product that is formaldehyde free.

This article was very interesting because of its relativity to toxicology. To think that companies would lie just to be able to sell their products made me really engaged in this topic. After reading this article I got more interested in reading the ingredients of the products in my household to help keep my family and myself safe.


I think that the FDA should reintroduce the "Safe Cosmetics Act" and make sure that companies aren't secretly adding ingredients to the products. This will ensure safe products when they reach a house hold or in this case, hair salon. At home we can ensure our safety by reading ingredients. Being cautious about new products could help save the family from sickness.



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<![CDATA[Chapter 10 Guided Reading]]>Thu, 03 Dec 2015 22:55:59 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/chapter-10-guided-reading1: What are some of the chronic health effects of exposure to Benzene?
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Irritation
  • Respiratory tract


2: What are some of the potential sources of Benzene in the environment?
Some sources are evaporating gasoline and tobacco smoke.

3: Why is it so hard to link health problems to toxic air pollution?
Chemical plants are following all the laws so far.

4: Why it is said that between a state of health and a state of disease is a gray zone of
suboptimal health, a state of imbalance?
The person could probably not be diagnosed but still could not be healthy.

5: Explain what happened at Lake Nyos, Cameroon.
A large amount of CO2 was suddenly released. Later an earthquake was able to move water and the CO2 upwards which then made it move quickly into the air. The concentration killed the nearby villages and animals.

6: What is the difference between a pollutant and a contaminant?
Pollutants are unwanted and contaminants are just unfit for a particular use.

7: Define the following:
• Toxin:Substance poisonous to living things
• Toxicology:Study of toxins
• Carcinogen:Toxin able to raise the risk of cancer
• Synergism:Interaction of different substances
• Point sources: Give example:Way of introducing pollutants ex:smokestacks
• Area sources (non-point): More diffused over land. Give example: Urban runoffs
• Mobile sources: Give example:Automobile exhaust

8: Define the following: (Identify when they are used)
• ppm:Parts per million
• ppb:Parts per billion
• mg/L: milligrams of of toxins per liter
• μg/m3:micrograms of pollutants per cubic meter

9: What is an Infectious Agent? (Give examples):
An interaction that is able to spread diseases.

11: What are some common heavy metals found in the environment? What health
hazards can they pose to humans
  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Nickel
  • Gold
12: What is the concept of Body Burden?
Quantity of heavy metals.

13: Define biomagnification/bioaccumulation:
accumulation of a substance in a living tissue

14: Describe how Cadmium is a good example of biomagnification.
Increases risk of heart disease through the environment like ash.

15: How does Mercury enter the environment?
Volcanoes and erosion of mercury deposits.

16: Define Methylation:
complex biogeochemical cycles

Read: A Closer Look 10.2- Mercury and Minamata, Japan
What are the 4 major factors that must be considered in evaluating and treating toxic
environmental pollutants?

18: Define: Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) and describe the properties that define
them
  • have carbon based molecule structure
  • polluting and toxic
  • made artificially
  • soluble in fat

Read: A Closer Look 10.3- Dioxin: How Dangerous is it?
19: Give some examples of HAA’s:
  • herbicides
  • pesticides
  • phthalates


20: Explain how PCB’s are harmful (found in plastics):
PCB's stay in the substances where ever they go and never leave.

Read: A Closer Look 10.4- Demasculinization and Feminization of Frogs
21: How can Thermal Pollution affect a body of water and it’s biodiversity? Explain.
Warm water hold less oxygen than cold water.

22: What are examples of particulates?
  • Volcanic ash
  • Heavy metals
  • sulfur dioxide


23: Why is asbestos harmful to humans?
It can lead to asbestosis and cancer.

24: How can EMF (Electromagnetic Fields) be harmful to humans?
They mess with the earth's magnetic field and can transition into leukemia

25: How is noise pollution measured?
Decibels

26: What are some voluntary exposures to pollutants?
  • tobacco
  • alcohol
  • drugs



27: What is meant by the quote, “everything is poisonous, yet nothing is poisonous”?
Explain.
28: Describe the “dose-response”. Draw and label the generalized dose-response curve.
Explain each step.

Picture
29: Define the following:
• LD-50:crude approximation of chemical toxicity
• ED-50:does causing effect in 50% of the subjects
• TD-50:dose that is toxic to 50% of the subject

30: Explain the concept of a threshold dose:
It is a level below which no effect occurs and above which effects begin to occur

31: Define:
• Behavioral tolerance: Results from changes in behavior
• Physiological tolerance:Results from the body adjusting to the pollutant.
• Genetic tolerance: Adaptation

32: Explain the difference between an acute and chronic effect.
acute: occurs after exposure
chronic: occurs after a long time.

33: Explain the steps of risk assessment:
  1. Identify the hazard
  2. dose response assessment
  3. exposure assessment
  4. risk characterization


34: What is the precautionary principle?
if an action or policy is suspected of causing risk then the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking an action.


35: What is the main point of the discussion about lead in the bones of children and
behavior?
Lead is poisonous and affects nearly every system in the body.

36: Why is it difficult to establish standards for acceptable levels of pollution? In giving
your answer, consider physical, climatological, biological, social, and ethical reasons.

It is difficult because the climate continues to change and people also live in different climates. Some climates such as living in the cold trap a lot of pollution but other places that are hot make it hard to find a right concentration of pollution for the people that live in each environment.


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<![CDATA[PES- Environmental History and Laws- Guided Viewing1]]>Mon, 30 Nov 2015 08:09:25 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/pes-environmental-history-and-laws-guided-viewing1 What are the 4 stages of American Environmental History?
  1. Hunter-Gatherer Society
  2. Agricultural Revolution
  3. Industrial/Medical Revolution
  4. Information/Globalization Revolution
2: Why were the “Hunter-Gatherers” considered to have a low environmental impact?
They had small populations so there was very low resource intake.

3: Why do you think Jared Diamond coined the agricultural revolution as the “Greatest Mistake
in Human History”?
There was more resource consumption and larger population size. Monocultures also started.

4. Contrast the Good and Bad of the Agricultural Revolution:

Picture
5: What are the “Roots of abuse” in the American Frontier Era?
  • The first colonists
  • Guns, axes, and wheels
  • Manifest Destiny
  • Westward Expansion
  • The saying and thought of unlimited resources

6: Look at the graphic of the North American Buffalo territory- what happened to the Buffalo
over a short period of time? 7: The buffalo slowly decreased in population as technology and industrialism took over the land.

List HOW the Industrial Revolution impacted the environment.
The buffalo slowly decreased in population as technology and industrialism took over the land.
  • Pollution
  • Habitat Destruction
  • Takes space from the habitats
  • Waste


8: List the GOOD and Bad news of the Industrial-Medical Revolution


Good
  • Mass Production of useful products
  • Higher standard of living
  • Increase in agricultural production
  • Low infant mortality
  • Longer life spans
  • Increase Urbanization

Bad
  • Increased air pollution
  • Increased water pollution
  • More waste production
  • soil depletion
  • groundwater depletion
  • habitat destruction
  • biodiversity depletion


9: List some events of the Early Conservation Era:
  • Growing public alarm
  • Beginnings of federal control
  • Groups formed to protect natural resources
  • Great Depression
  • Dust Bowl
  • World Wars

10: Explain how each of the following “Early Environmentalists” impacted the environmental
movement:
* Henry David Thoreau :Massachusetts wildlife areas (“Walden Pond”, “Life In The Woods”)* George Perkins Marsh* John Wesley Powell
* President Grant: Warned about the collapse of civilization
* President Harrison: Set aside lands for national parks and national forests.
* John Muir: Founded Sierra Club 1892
* Gifford Pinchot: 1st chief U.S Forester
*Theodore Roosevelt: Created 40 + wildlife refugees and tripled the forest reserves.
* Stephen Mather: 1st head of park service.

11: What was the 1st federal land restoration project?
The 1st federal land restoration project was the Tennessee Valley Authority

12: What were the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) responsible for?
The maintained the environment by planting trees, controlled erosion, made nature trails, etc.

13: Why was the “Taylor Grazing Act” important to the environment? Explain.
This act regulated the grazing of public land.

14: Why was WWII the end of the Conservation Era?
Many things were being consumed instead of being conserved.

15: When did the environmental era start? Who was responsible for “starting” the movement?
How?
It started in 1960 when Rachel Carson made the book "Silent Spring"

16: Who was Aldo Leopold?
He was an environmental philosopher.
17: When was the 1st official “Earth Day”?
The first official earth day was January 1st, 1970

18: What were some key legislation in the 60‘s, 70’s and 80’s?
  • Wilderness Act: 1964
  • Wild and Scenic Rivers Act: 1968
  • National Environmental
  • Policy Act: 1969
  • The Clean Air Act: 1972

19: What is the EPA? What are they responsible for? 20: Who are the NRCS? What are they responsible for? What about CITES?
The EPA is an agency that provide money for environmental studies and quality.

21: List the following:
* Montreal Protocol: Made to phase out the use of ozone-depleting chemicals by 2000/2005

* IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change
* Kyoto Protocol: Agreement to reduce greenhouse emissions by 5%

22: List some of the important U.S. Environmental Laws below:
  • Clean Air Act
  • Clean Water Act
  • NEPA
  • Wilderness Act
  • FIFRA

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<![CDATA[Botkin and Keller- Chapter #7 (Economy) Notes and Questions]]>Mon, 30 Nov 2015 08:07:08 GMThttp://antonioscrapes.weebly.com/blog/botkin-and-keller-chapter-7-economy-notes-and-questionsKey Terms:
commons: Land belonging to the public
direct costs: Costs borne by the producer in obtaining, processing, and distributing a product.
environmental economics: Effects of the environment and how economic processes affect the environment and it's living resources
externality: Benefit that affects a party that didn't want to be part of it.
indirect cost: Costs indirectly accountable to a cost object
intangible factor: Soft factors that are difficult to quantify.
natural capital: The extension of the economic notion of capital
policy instruments: Implements a society's policies
public-service functions: functions to benefit other species in an ecosystem
risk-benefit analysis: Putting risks towards the future than in the present
tangible factor: Something that is able to be touched, bought, and sold.


Questions:
What is meant by the term the tragedy of the commons?
The tragedy of the commons means the loss of resources due to over-exploitation.

Which of the following are the result of this tragedy?
A & B
(a) The fate of the California condor
(b) The fate of the gray whale

Cherry and walnut are valuable woods used to make fine furniture. Basing your decision on the information on the following table, which would you invest in?
(B) as is lasts longer making it a higher value.

Bird flu is spread in part by migrating wild birds. How would you put a value on (a) the continued existence of one species of these wild birds; (b) domestic chickens important for food but also a major source of the disease; (c) control of the disease for human health? What relative value would you place on each (that is, which is most important and which least)? To what extent would an economic analysis enter into your valuation?
(A)

Which of the following are intangible resources?
Which are tangible?
A-Intangible
B-Tangible
C-Tangible
D-Tangible
E-Tangible

What kind of future value is implied by the statement
“Extinction is forever”? Discuss how we might approach
providing an economic analysis for extinction.
The future value that is implied is that there will be no more of the thing that is becoming extinct having no future at all. Whether or not the species provide eco service or not is the approach of an economic analysis.

Which of the following can be thought of as commons
in the sense meant by Garrett Hardin? Explain your choice.
(a) Tuna Fisheries in the open ocean because the public is able to profit themselves with the amount of tuna they catch and sell or use for their own consumption instead of letting them have the chance to reproduce their population.

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